After the death of Mu’awiyyah, his son
Yazid became Caliph. He ignored his father’s death-bed advice and ordered his
Governor of Madinah – Walid b. Utbah - to either force a pledge of allegiance
from Husayn or send his head to Damascus. His rule was to be by bribery,
coercion, threats and force.
In Shaban 680/60 Husayn assembled a
caravan to take his family out of Madinah to sanctuary in Makkah. The people
of Madinah were aware of the Prophet’s (pbuh) forecast that one day Husayn
would leave Madinah with his entire family, never to return. Despite their
anxiety, they were only told that the family was leaving for Hajj, and after that for an unknown
destination to arrange the marriage of Ali Akbar (the son of Husayn’s wife
Layla bint Abu Murrah b. Urwah b. Mas’ud of Taif, one of those reared by
Husayn’s sister Zaynab) to a princess. Hasan’s eight-year-old daughter
Fatimah was left behind with Umm
Banin (Ali’s widow, who with her sons (eldest son Abbas) had lived with Husayn since Ali’s death – which occurred
when Abbas was 12) and her sister Umm Salamah. The child had a premonition
that she would die while they were away, and asked Ali Akbar to be sure to
fetch his bride and pray at her grave. Umm Banin warned her sons that if
Husayn or any of his loved ones got hurt while they still lived, she would
never forgive them.
They left Madinah on 4th
Rajab, reached Makkah on 4th Shaban, and stayed there in sanctuary
for four months until the Hajj
season. Meanwhile, Numan b. Bashir (the first Ansar baby to have been born in
Madinah after the hijrah) who had
been Ali’s Governor of Kufah, was replaced by Yazid’s man, Ubaydallah b.
Ziyad. However, the people of Kufah were loyal to Husayn, and informed him
that some of the ‘pilgrims’ were coming specifically to kill him. They
invited Husayn to come to them in Kufah. Husayn therefore sent his cousin
Muslim b. Aqil in advance to be his representative, along with Mukhtar b. Abu
Ubayd b. Mas’ud ath-Thaqafi and Hani b. Urwah.
Ibn Aqil had married Husayn’s
half-sister Ruqaiyyah (bint Umm Habibah bint Rabi’ah), and they had four
children – Abdullah (now aged 15), Muhammad (aged 10), Ibrahim (aged 8) and
Ruqaiyyah (aged 5-6). Muhammad and Ibrahim went with him to Kufah.
Yazid’s man Ibn Ziyad soon had Ibn Aqil
and the other agents killed – they were hurled from a rooftop. (Mukhtar
survived, to avenge the murder of Husayn at Karbala by seizing power in Kufah
in 685-7/66-7). Their corpses were dragged through the streets, and the city
and surroundings placed under observation. Ibn Aqil’s two young sons Muhammad
and Ibrahim were imprisoned. (After the battle of Karbala they managed to
escape and were hidden by a woman, but unfortunately, her husband worked for
Ibn Ziyad and when he discovered them, he killed them).
Meanwhile Husayn, still in Makkah, did
not wish the holy shrine to become the scene of battle, so decided to leave
on 8th Dhu’l Hijjah without waiting to perform the Hajj rites.
He set out with his family, realising
that he stood little chance of escape. It was the season of blistering heat,
and a journey of some 1,100 miles, and there were around 50 children in the
caravan. Zaynab begged her husband Abdullah b. Jafar for permission to go
with them. Ibn Jafar himself was too ill to travel and stayed behind while
she took her son Awn (aged c13) and her stepson Muhammad (aged c.11).
Husayn was soon told about the death of
his cousin Muslim b. Aqil. He sent Zaynab to console his half-sister
Ruqaiyyah and her little daughter Ruqaiyyah, the great playmate of his own
four-year-old daughter Ruqaiyyah (who was usually called Sakinah or
Long before they reached Kufah they were confronted by 1,000
horsemen under Yazid’s commander Hur al-Riyahi who informed Husayn they had
been ordered not to let him enter Kufah unless he gave allegiance to Yazid.
If Husayn refused, Hur was commissioned to take them to meet Ibn Ziyad at
another place. Hur and his troops were suffering from thirst. Husayn agreed
to meet Ibn Ziyad, gave them all water, and turned his caravan according to
Hur’s instructions – but they found they had been directed to a place without
vegetation or water, where another army under Umar b. Sa’d appeared and
forced them to halt. The place was a desert called Karbala, some 70 miles
from Kufah. It was 2nd Muharram, 61.
Husayn and his people set up camp and
were instantly hemmed in by the huge army. On the 4th Muharram
Zaynab grew alarmed and asked her brother why all these soldiers were
massing. He told her they had come to kill him. ‘But we are barely 72 men
while they are in thousands. Isn’t there anyone who can help us?’ she cried.
‘Falsehood can buy many supporters,’ Husayn said, ‘but truth has few
As it happened, both commanders Hur and
Umar b. Sa’d were impressed with Husayn and even joined the prayers with him.
Husayn had virtually persuaded them to lift the siege and let them leave Iraq
when the furious Ibn Ziyad sent Shimr b. Dhiljawshan to order Umar to either
commence fighting or be relieved of his position and beheaded. Shimr/Shimar,
was actually the nephew of Ali’s wife Umm Banin bint Hizam b. Khalid b.
Darim, and as her four sons, Abbas, Jafar, Uthman and Abdullah, were at this
very moment with Husayn facing death he begged the Governor’s pardon for
them, and obtained it. His relatives responded by cursing him and his pardon
and refused to abandon Husayn.
On 7th Muharram Ibn Ziyad’s
army moved in closer. Amr b. Hajjaj commanded the right flank of Umar’s army,
and Shimr the left flank. Husayn’s people were in sight of the river
Euphrates, but Caliph Yazid’s army deployed a picket of 500 men to cut off
their access to the water. They hoped this would force Husayn to negotiate an
unconditional surrender. Husayn refused to give way, even though he knew he
was staring death in the face. Husayn gave leave to all who wished to abandon
him, turning out the lights so that those who wished to could slip away
without embarrassment. Some 40 remained with him, vowing to defend him to
their last drop of blood.
He ordered the digging of a trench
enclosing the rear of the tents, and filled it with firewood ready to defend
themselves with fire.
On the 9th Muharram, Ibn
Ziyad’s forces closed in on the camp, and Husayn asked his half-brother Abbas
to go to Umar b. Sa’d and request delay of the battle by one more night. They
agreed. That night Husayn freed all who were slaves, and gave his companions
a further chance to leave him. ‘I have not known better and more faithful
companions than my own, or better and more loving relatives than my own. May
Allah give you all a goodly reward. Tomorrow is going to be the fateful day
for me and my enemies. The enemy is only interested in me. I gladly permit
each one of you to leave – I will not have the least complaint against
anyone. Darkness is coming on. Avail yourselves of it, and make good your
escape.’ They cried that they would
either live with him or die with him, even sixteen of the freed slaves. One
of these was John b. Huwai, who had first been the slave of Abu Dharr
al-Ghifari, then Ali, then Hasan and finally Husayn – now an old man with
grey curly hair.
Zaynab ran to Husayn and threw her arms
round his neck weeping. ‘Dear sister,’ he cried, ‘Do not let the devil snatch
away your patience and dignity.’ ‘How can you leave me alone? It is breaking
my heart.’ She fell in a swoon, and they sprinkled water on her face. ‘Dear
sister, remember Allah and get peace of mind from Him. All living things have
to die – nothing in the universe will live for ever. The Messenger (pbuh) was
a model of virtue for me and for every other Muslim. Learn from his example
how to be patient and calm. I implore you, do not cry out or tear your hair
or clothing after I am dead.’ She
then asked if she could die in his place, and he told her it was not
He also warned her that it was time to
get his little daughter Sakinah used to going to sleep without his being
there. Sakinah would never settle down unless it was in his arms, and when
she had drifted off he would carry her to Zaynab or Rubab. This would soon be
He asked Zaynab to go to the tent of his
son Ali Zayn al-Abidin, who was lying on a sheepskin raging with fever,
commending him to them as the next Imam. Then he retired to his own tent
where he spent the rest of the night in prayer. (Ali Zayn al-Abidin was known
as ‘Ibn al-Khiyaratayn’ – ‘the son of the best two’, meaning the two lines of the Quraysh and the Persian royalty).
One source stated that Husayn’s wife
Rabab bint Imru’l Qays went into labour in the tent that night – but other
versions suggest that her baby, Ali Asghar (Abdullah), was six months old at
Karbala. Either way, Husayn spent his last night with one of his tiniest
In the morning, the truce was over.
Zaynab heard the enemy battle cries and ran to Husayn’s tent where she found
he had fallen asleep sitting, while polishing his sword. He woke, and told
her he had just had a dream in which he had seen his dead loved ones, who
told him he would soon be with them.
He expected few to stand and face death
with him, but to his surprise, on the 10th Muharram 61-2/680 his
support had increased to 31 horsemen and 40 footsoldiers, some having joined
him from Yazid’s army – but they were still hopelessly outnumbered. (Some put
the enemy army at 5,000, others at 30,000!). Many were already dying from
Husayn put on his grandfather’s (pbuh)
cloak and turban, took up the famous double-bladed sword Dhu’l fiqar, and prepared to die. He saw Umar b. Sa’d mobilising
his troops. Suddenly the enemy commander Hur, his son and his manservant –
who had listened to the children crying all night from thirst - deserted Ibn
Ziyad’s force and rushed to join Husayn’s people.
Fierce fighting soon followed, and
within an hour - by noon - most of Husayn’s followers had been slain. The
trench was fired to serve as a back buffer between the two armies, and at
least one of the enemy (Ibn Hawdha) died in it. At the time for mid-day
prayer Husayn called the adhan for
his survivors (15 warriors and 18 members of his family), but the enemy army
ignored this and carried on shooting. As Husayn led the worship two warriors
stepped forward to use their bodies to shield Husayn from the arrows. When
the prayer ended it was said that one had 38 arrows in him, and the other 52.
Hur (whose name meant ‘freedom’) died in
The first woman killed was the wife of
Wahhab b. Abdullah al-Kalbi, who went to sit by the body of her slain husband
and was bludgeoned to death by Shimr’s servant. Even children fought. One
eleven-year-old boy was Amr b. Junadah al-Ansari. He was killed and his head
cut off and hurled into the camp, whereupon his mother got up and threw it
back, seized a tent-pole and went out to fight to the death herself.
Shimr then threatened to burn Husayn’s
tent while his family was still inside it.
Abbas’ three brothers were killed
shortly after the noon prayer.
Zaynab’s sons Awn (c.13) and Muhammad
(c.11), who had been trained to fight by Abbas, had been refused permission
to go out and attempt single combats – until Zaynab reminded Husayn how Abbas
had saved his life at the battle of Siffin when he was only eight years old.
They were then allowed to go, and impressed Umar b. Sa’d with their valour,
but both were soon killed. When she saw their bodies, Zaynab refused to mourn
although the whole camp was in tears. ‘I will not lament for you,’ she said.
‘You have gone in the way of the Lord. Let not my brother feel that I am
sorry for losing them – today I am very pleased with my children.’
Next to go was Ruqaiyyah bint Ali’s son
Abdullah b. Muslim (b. Aqil b. Abu Talib), then Hasan’s sons by Umm Farwah –
Abdullah, Umar and Qasim. Qasim was a young boy of about 14. Umm Farwah had
been saving Hasan’s special wedding garment for Qasim’s future wedding day.
Knowing now that he would not live to marry, she dressed him in it before
kissing him farewell. Qasim fought until his sandal broke and as he bent to
fix it he was knocked down. He cried out for his uncle. Husayn tried to
rescue him, but the boy’s arm was struck off and then he was trampled by the
horses, his body torn to pieces. When the horses left, Husayn managed to
gather up the pieces of his body in his garment and rode back to the tents,
where he asked the faithful maidservant Fiddah to care for his mother and
other loved ones.
Soon there were only four men left -
Husayn, Ali Akbar, Abbas and Ali Zayn al-Abidin. Ali Zayn al-Abidin, the son
of the Persian princess, had not been able to fight because he was so ill
with virulent fever that he could not stand up. Little Sakinah, who
particularly loved Husayn’s half-brother Abbas, went to him begging for
water. Abbas, who had successfully made previous attempts to get water from
the Euphrates, made a dash to try to get more for the children and even
managed to fill a skin, but was attacked and overwhelmed. He lost both arms,
and took an arrow in the eye. Husayn reached him, but Abbas begged him to go
back and take care of Sakinah for him, and not carry back his body in case
she saw it and was too upset. When Sakinah saw blood on the water-skin and
knew what it meant. She prayed desperately that he would not die, and she
would never ask for water again, but to no avail. He had joined the martyrs.
Now it was the turn of Ali Akbar (Abu’l
Husayn), Husayn’s eighteen-year-old son by his wife Layla bint Abu Murrah,
the grand-daughter of Urwah b. Mas’ud of Taif. Ali Akbar was one of those who
most closely resembled the Prophet (pbuh) in looks, and was very much loved
by his aunt Zaynab who had cherished him alongside her own sons. He had been
prevented from going to the battlefield by those who wished to preserve his
life, but now he forced his father to give permission. He did not wish it to
be said that he had been spared until all his brothers and nephews were
killed. His mother Layla fainted in his arms when she embraced him, and he
passed her to the care of Zaynab.
put the Prophet’s (pbuh) turban on him, and as he mounted his horse little
Sakinah clung to him and begged him not to go. He kissed her farewell,
advanced to the enemy, and gave an impassioned speech to try to end the
fighting. The enemy also tried to win him over, since his mother Layla was
also the grand-daughter of Maymunah bint Abu Sufyan and therefore a close
relative of Yazid, but he dismissed the idea of any amnesty for himself with
contempt. He fought several single combats, and then managed to get back to
Husayn’s camp, where he refused to drink himself while they did not drink,
and said farewell to his family. The second time he went out he was mortally
wounded, lanced in the back and a sword-blow splitting his head. He clung to
his horse, but as it went back to the camp the troops surrounded him and he
was cut down. Husayn heard his cry and rushed out to find him, and he died in
his father’s arms. They carried him back to the camp, where Zaynab ran out
and threw herself on his body. Husayn pulled her back and placed his corpse
in front of his tent, where it was said that the tears of his mother Layla
and the other womenfolk literally washed the blood from him.
baby Ali Asghar was crying, desperately dehydrated, and Zaynab pleaded with
Husayn to try to beg some water for him. Surely they would not harm the baby?
Rabab dressed him in clean clothes and put a little turban on him, and Husayn
took him outside the tent in his arms. (The source which said he was newborn
related that Husayn named him Abdullah at this point, and whispered the adhan for him). His pleas were scorned,
and an arrow fired through the baby’s neck by the expert archer Hurmala
(Hurmillah) pinned him to Husayn’s chest. Unable to do anything but support
the baby, he stumbled back to his camp. He handed the tiny corpse to Zaynab,
then he and Rabab buried their baby.
Husayn realised there was no longer any
hope. Only he and Ali Zayn remained. Ali Zayn tried to rouse himself, but was
too ill. Husayn’s last request to him was to send his farewell greeting to
the eight-year-old Fatimah they had left in Madinah, and to ask their friends
to remember him whenever they drank water. His very last request was for
Zaynab to give him ragged underwear and torn trousers, so that his corpse
would not be stripped leaving his private parts exposed. Zaynab brought his
horse to mount, but his departure was delayed by little Sakinah clinging to
its leg and begging the horse not to take her father away and leave her an
He reminded her that she was the
great-grand-daughter of the Prophet (pbuh), and how could they face him if he
did not go? Then he charged desperately into the enemy troops, begging that
they would spare his womenfolk, and Shimr did agree. Amazingly, Husayn
managed to fight his way to the Euphrates. As he tried to sip a drink,
someone taunted him that he was refreshing himself while his family was being
violated, so he threw down the water and managed to get back to his tent,
where he was surrounded. He picked up the crying Sakinah while the enemy
rained down a thick hail of arrows, some piercing the tent-ropes and the
Husayn got to his horse, but was completely helpless from his own
wounds. He was hit in the shoulder, the mouth, collarbone, chest, throat and
Soon, a sword-blow gashed his skull, and
he was brought to the ground. His eleven-year old nephew Abdullah b. Hasan
ran out waving a stick at the soldier. ‘O son of an unclean wretch!’ he
cried. ‘Will you kill my uncle?’ The
soldier, Malik, cut the boy’s hand off. Husayn tried to hold him, and Zaynab
ran out to join them, but an arrow finished the boy off while he was in his uncle’s arms.
Muhammad b. Abu Sa’id, the young
grandson of Aqil b. Abu Talib, was killed as a rider closed in and smashed
Then, there was a lull, for everyone
hesitated to be the slayer of the Prophet’s (pbuh) beloved grandson Husayn,
and nobody came forward. Shimr howled at the troops to make them get on with
it and finish him off. ‘Shame on you! Why are you hanging back? Kill him, may
your mothers be deprived of you!’ he shouted.
Husayn’s devoted horse trampled and
kicked, and when the soldiers let it alone it came and nosed Husayn, staining
its forehead with blood before going back to Husayn’s tent. When the women
saw the blood they unveiled their faces and hair, and came out crying. Zaynab
took her brother in her arms and cursed the enemy who stood watching him die.
In the end, it was Shimr himself who
came and kicked him, sat on his chest, held him by the beard and stabbed him
12 times before beheading him.
His body was instantly plundered as he had feared – Bahr b. Ka’b took his
trousers, Qays b. Ashath took his cloak, Aswad al-Awdi took his sandals and
one of the Banu Nahshal b. Darim took his sword (which later came into the
possession of the family of Habib b. Budayl). Umar b. Sa’d called for
volunteers to ride back and forth trampling Husayn’s body under the hooves of
their horses, and some ten did so (it was even suggested that they reshod
their horses first), until his back and chest were completely crushed.
Zaynab howled: ‘O Muhammad! O Muhammad!
Here is Husayn in the open, stained with blood and with limbs torn off. O
Muhammad! Your daughters are prisoners, your progeny are slain, and the east
wind blows dust over them!’ She rushed back to tell Ali Zayn that his father
was dead, and held back the tent flap so that he could see. He told her to
prepare the other women and children for their inevitable fate.
Shimr led the men in plundering his haram, looting what they could. The
women, who were completely covered, even their faces, were beaten and their veils ripped off,
and their clothing pulled from their backs. Sakinah and Fatimah (Sukaynah)
both wore earrings. Fatimah/Sukaynah’s were wrenched off, making her ears
bleed. When Sakinah struggled to keep her veil on, she was punched.
Meanwhile, they thought the unconscious
Ali Zayn was dead, but when his bedding was pulled out from beneath him and
he was rolled to the floor, Shimr realised he was still alive. He came to
kill him, but Zaynab threw herself over him and to everyone’s surprise
Shimr’s own men prevented him.
Then the tents were set on fire, and
Sakinah ran out with her clothes ablaze. One of the enemy soldiers (Hunayd b.
Muslim) put out the flames. When he picked up the child she surprised him by
asking if he could tell her where Najaf was. He asked why, and she said she
wanted to go there to complain to her grandfather about what had happened. He
took her back to Zaynab.
As night fell, Zaynab went out and
collected up all the children who had scattered into the open to the space
between the gutted tents, the night known as
sham-e gareeba, ‘the night
of the homeless’. She found them all except Sakinah. Zaynab cried out in her
grief, and it was said that she heard the voice of Husayn telling her that
the child was with him – and indeed that was where they found her, asleep and
clinging to her dead father’s headless and mangled body.
Suddenly they saw more people with
torches approaching, and assuming they were looters Zaynab made ready to beg
them not to disturb the children who had at last managed to sleep. It was not
soldiers but some of their wives, led by the widow of Hur, who had brought
them food and water. She told them that Amr b. Sa’d had only allowed it as he
wished to keep them alive to take them captive to Yazid!
The bodies of the martyrs were all
decapitated and their heads stuck on spears to be paraded. Their bodies were
left unburied for three days. 72 men had died trying to save Husayn,
including 18 of the Prophet’s (pbuh) own family. Among the dead were some
seventeen teenagers, and Husayn’s five-year-old son Jafar. There were also
the sixteen slaves or freed slaves, mostly from Abyssinia.
The women and children, Ali Zayn
al-Abidin and his four-year-old son Muhammad al-Baqir (or Abu Jafar, the son
of Umm Abdullah, the daughter of his brother Hasan) were taken as captives to
Kufah, made to walk first past the naked bodies of their martyrs still lying
on the battlefield even after the enemy had buried their own dead. They were
made to ride on camels without saddles with their faces unveiled, behind the
heads of their menfolk impaled on spears.
Zaynab briefly became the leader of the
Shi’at Ali, and the guardian of the orphans of Ahl al-Bayt.
Thus Ali Zayn al-Abidin b. Husayn became
the Fourth Imam, and his son Muhammad al-Baqir was the Fifth.
Hasan Muthannah, a son of Hasan b. Ali,
also survived. He was seriously wounded and found lying among the dead. A
general interceded for him and he was not slain, but taken to Kufah. (He
married Husayn’s daughter Fatimah).
The people of Kufah were told that the
Muslims had achieved victory against a rebel tribe, and were to prepare a
celebration, but the triumphant music in the marketplace soon changed to
shocked silence broken only by weeping when the people saw what had really
happened. They lowered their eyes and would not look at the Prophet’s (pbuh)
women; someone ran to fetch veils for them, but they were snatched away.
Zaynab gave a passionate public speech, reprimanding them for allowing the
death of their Imam.
In the audience hall of the Governor’s
palace she faced up to Ibn Ziyad. When he saw the young man Ali Zayn he was
furious that he was still alive, and gave orders for him to be beheaded.
Zaynab rushed forward and clutched him in her arms. ‘You will have to kill me
before you touch my brother’s only surviving son!’ she raged. He was spared.
The martyrs’ heads and the captives were
then sent to Caliph Yazid in Damascus, over 600 miles away, a journey which
was to take them 28 days. As they went from town to town the defiant Zaynab
made such impassioned speeches that high feelings were aroused and much
sympathy for the Prophet’s (pbuh) descendants.
When Yazid was presented with Husayn’s
head on a gold dish he started to poke his lips and teeth with a stick, to
the disgust of the venerable Companion Zayd b. Arqam. ‘Take your cane from
those lips,’ he cried, ‘for by Allah, I have seen the lips of the Prophet
(pbuh) kiss those lips!’. ‘May God make your eyes weep!’ sneered Yazid. ‘By
God, if it were not for the fact that you are an old man who has gone senile
and your mind has left you, I would cut off your head!’ Zayd walked out of the court. Again Zaynab spoke out
defiantly, in defence of those lips the Prophet (pbuh) used to kiss.
A Syrian asked to be given Fatimah, who
clung to Zaynab weeping, and she cursed him. Yazid might have killed her but
she was defended by Abdullah b. Umar b. al-As. However, she begged Yazid to
kill her too if he killed Ali Zayn. They were moved to a prison open to the
sky – hot like an oven by day and so cold at night that they could not sleep.
Little Sakinah (Ruqaiyyah) was never
seen to smile again. She could not sleep. She said she could hear a baby
crying, and kept asking if it was her baby brother Ali Asghar. On the night
of 5th Rabi al-Awwal Sakinah lay down on the prison floor, her
eyes wide and staring at the wall. When they tried to wake her for the dawn
prayer she was found dead. Ali Zayn al-Abidin dug her grave in the cell, and
there she was buried while her mother shrieked in grief. Her grave exists to
this day. Zaynab took her earrings, intending to
place them on Husayn’s grave one day, if it became possible.
When Yazid’s wife found out the truth of
what had happened she could not believe it – she and all her ladies called on
Husayn’s family and did their best to console them. In the end Yazid was so
ashamed he felt obliged to publicly disown his agents and condemn them, and
gave orders for Husayn’s head to be taken back to where his body lay, at
Karbala, to be buried with it. Yazid then allotted Husayn’s surviving family
a house adjoining the palace, and compensated them for the plunder.
The infamous Shimr tried to escape but
was butchered and his dead body fed to dogs. Eventually, to conciliate public
opinion, Husayn’s survivors were all sent back to Madinah, escorted by Numan
b. Bashir. At Karbala, Husayn’s body was disinterred and his head was piously
buried with it. The widow Rabab would not leave the grave and remained there
for a whole year. Zaynab also wished to be left there, and would have stayed
until she died, but Ali Zayn over-ruled her and she was made to continue with
When they got near to Madinah they
entered on foot, carrying black flags, and went first to the Prophet’s (pbuh)
grave to pray, before being reunited with Umm Banin, Fatimah and her sister.
Zaynab’s hair had turned white as snow. Although she was reunited with her
husband (Abdullah b. Jafar), she did not live long after the tortuous trials
she had suffered. The exact date and place of her death is not clear but it
is probable that she died on 16th Dhu’l Hijjah in the year 62,
some six months after her return. Rabab also eventually returned to Madinah
and died there.
Later, Ali Zayn was arrested again and
sent back in chains to Damascus, but then again returned to Madinah, where he
retired from public life and spent his remaining life in worship.